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O Alienista (Classicos Da Literatura Brasileira)

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Clássico da literatura brasileira, este texto de Machado de Assis continua sendo, cento e trinta anos depois de sua publicação original, uma das mais devastadoras observações sobre a insanidade a que pode chegar a ciência. Tão palpitante quanto de leitura prazerosa, O alienista é uma dessas joias da ficção da literatura mundial.
Médico, Simão Bacamarte passa a se interessar pela psiquiatria, iniciando um estudo sobre a loucura em Itaguaí, onde funda a Casa Verde - um típico hospício oitocentista -, arregimentando cobaias humanas para seus experimentos. O que se segue é uma história surpreendente e atual em seu debate sobre desvios e normalidade, loucura e razão.

56 pages, Paperback

First published March 15, 1882

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About the author

Machado de Assis

843 books1,977 followers
Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis, often known as Machado de Assis, Machado, or Bruxo do Cosme Velho, (June 21, 1839, Rio de Janeiro—September 29, 1908, Rio de Janeiro) was a Brazilian novelist, poet, playwright and short story writer. He is widely regarded as the most important writer of Brazilian literature. However, he did not gain widespread popularity outside Brazil in his own lifetime.
Machado's works had a great influence on Brazilian literary schools of the late 19th century and 20th century. José Saramago, Carlos Fuentes, Susan Sontag and Harold Bloom are among his admirers and Bloom calls him "the supreme black literary artist to date."

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Displaying 1 - 30 of 907 reviews
Profile Image for karen.
3,988 reviews170k followers
August 14, 2018
ah, machado.

he just never fails.

this is just a short little work, part of melville house's wonderful "art of the novella" series, but it is machado, so you know it is going to be wholly satisfying, despite being only 86 pages.

this one is about... madness. and how you don't want one person in charge of determining who is crazy and who is not. especially not this man:

In his fortieth year Bacamarte married the widow of a circuit judge. Her name was Dona Evarista da Costa e Mascarenhas, and she was neither beautiful nor charming. One of his uncles, an outspoken man, asked him why he had not selected a more attractive woman. The doctor replied that Dona Evarista enjoyed perfect digestion, excellent eyesight, and normal blood pressure; she had had no serious illnesses and her urinalysis was negative. It was likely she would give him healthy, robust children. If, in addition to her physiological accomplishments, Dona Evarista possessed a face composed of features neither individually pretty nor mutually compatible, he thanked God for it, for he would not be tempted to sacrifice his scientific pursuits for the contemplation of his wife's attractions.

because any man who is that clinical and impassive, that removed from ordinary human sentiment, is not the person i want telling me what sanity is. and by the end, you will be wishing he had just married a hotter wife. this is a man who needs distractions.

alas, instead of enjoying marital bliss with a fascinating woman, bacamarte instead sets out to single-mindedly diagnose the citizens of itaguai with their heretofore unrecognized mental disorders, and to open the first asylum in brazil.
he has a huge madhouse, and many rooms to fill.

and fill it he shall, using the "i don't know what it is, but i know it when i see it" argument.

machado wrote this in 1881, and the field of psychotherapy still had a ways to go, and i swear this man had some robert johnson thing going on, because his prescience, in all of his works, is so keen. he feels so damn modern, it thrills me.

in his hands, this becomes darkly absurd, and for a tiny little work, there are several reversals and more plot than you would expect, more plot than many authors could have delivered.

to be clear,this book is not about capital-e evil, it is not about taking advantage of position and influence. it is about misguidedness, pure and simple. so it is a more nuanced work than one that is just "this man is abusing his power." when you think of machado's contemporaries like dickens or wilkie collins, and how polarized their good/evil characters are, machado's psychological insights are even more impressive. thomas hardy was probably the only person writing at the same time who wrote emotional and moral ambiguity as well as machado.

and you know how i feel about him.

definitely read machado. i plan on doing some re-reading of him this year myself, and reading some of the ones i have not yet gotten to.

come to my blog!
Profile Image for Vit Babenco.
1,465 reviews3,620 followers
April 21, 2023
The Alienist is an acrid and witty social satire…
A gifted doctor establishes in the town a mental asylum…
Lunatics from all the neighboring towns and villages poured into the Casa Verde. There were the violent, the meek, the monomaniacs, indeed the entire family of all those strangers to reason. By the end of four months, the Casa Verde was a hive of activity.

Researching the problems of mental health the doctor decides that the boundaries of madness are much wider than he had supposed earlier… So every peculiarity, every new or original idea became a symptom of insanity… So there is no end of new patients…
The terror grew. No one knew any longer who was sane and who was mad. Whenever their husbands left the house, wives would light a candle to the Virgin Mary; and some husbands didn’t even have the courage to venture out without one or two thugs to protect them. Palpable terror reigned. Those who could, left the town. One such fugitive was captured a mere two hundred paces from the town.

This situation provokes a local revolution… Revolution provokes a counterrevolution… At last the order is restored… The alienist’s position remains unchanged… But when almost all the town’s population turns into patients he suddenly decides that majority is a norm and mad are those who have no peculiarities and are mentally balanced…
The social science never stands still and it is always ready to change its point of view to the opposite one.
Profile Image for Luís.
1,944 reviews609 followers
August 6, 2023
Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis, a Brazilian author of the second half of the 19th century, gives us to read a concise novel with the appearance of a philosophical tale.
The story of The Alienist takes place in Brazil while psychiatry has become institutionalized and asylums are multiplying in Europe and the New World. In a sober style and with a touch of discreet humor, Machado de Assis reveals the story of Simon Bacamarte, a psychiatrist who returns after his studies on the old continent in a small Brazilian town and undertakes to lock up all the madmen of the city, in his "Green House." However, if it suits the city's families, the action that is too happy to get rid of the mentally ill at a low cost will worry them more as the doctor broadens the definition of madness.
This short (less than one hundred pages) and satirical book prompts us to question the subjectivity of madness and, more broadly, the issues and the control of science (personified here by Bacamarte) and the power of institutions of any kind.
That's a small, highly recommendable book that combines simplicity and reflection.
Profile Image for s.penkevich.
965 reviews6,827 followers
June 28, 2013
Till now, madness has been thought a small island in an ocean of sanity. I am beginning to suspect that it is not an island at all but a continent.

Each of us are wired differently and set forth out into the world with our own baggage of experiences and perspectives, our own unique defects and demons, to interact with one another. Celebrated Brazilian author Machado de Assis’ 1882 novella The Alienist investigates the lines where normality and quirkiness tip over into the category of madness, exposing how each of us are mad in our own ways. Famous physician Simão Bacamarte causes quite a stir when he opens up his asylum, the Green House, in his tiny hometown of Itaguai, Brazil. ‘The idea of having madmen live together in the same house seemed itself to be a symptom of madness.’ However, the local government gives him full control and financially backs him, thus beginning his process of selecting any townspeople he wants to place in his own custody for psychological evaluation. Constructed as an exposé of the fictional history surrounding a town being rounded up by the head of the local asylum, Machado de Assis explores the roles of a scientific community and it’s interaction with politics as well as examines the human consciousness. Brilliantly succinct and engaging, The Alienist takes a comical satiric aim at psychology and revolution while managing to remain as poignant and feel as modern as it did when first published over a century ago.

Bacamarte is a clear representative of no-nonsense, indifferent science, with his entire life being in the name of scientific advancement. This is a man who marries his wife because ‘Dona Evarista enjoyed perfect digestion, excellent eyesight, and normal blood pressure; she had had no serious illnesses and her urinalysis was negative,’ as well as not being attractive enough to distract him from his work. The character’s of de Assis are more the embodiments of ideas than full-fledged characters in the traditional sense, however, this works in the novella’s favor. This witty satire is told from a distance, speedily recounting the events that transpired in Itaguai with respect to the Green House, allowing de Assis to keep a fast progression and paint in broad strokes without seeming neglectful of minor details. This pacing and simplicity creates a linguistic ambience akin to a parable, yet, if The Alienist is to be read as an allegorical novella, then it is one content to stand boldly bare of any metaphoric veils masking its naked truths. He bluntly addresses his quandaries of psychological investigation and political upheaval, furbishing them instead with comedic properties to expose their absurdities.

The selection of patients to stay at the Green House is entirely subject to Bacamarte’s will. Anyone who displays even the slightest aberration from bland normality catches his attention, and he is always able to find ‘scientific’ evidence as to how this behavior may be related to some sort of mental illness. I was reminded of an experiment we had discussed in an Abnormal Psychology course I took a few years back. In the 1970’s, psychologist David Rosenhan conducted an experiment that involved people being admitted to a hospital claiming to hear voices. The patients stayed an average of 19 days, each being diagnosed with schizophrenia and given antipsychotics. This experiment exposed the dehumanization experienced by the patients, as well as the various hospitals inability to distinguish between actual disorders and fakers. A major point made by my professor was the dangers of premature diagnosis, or misdiagnosis, as it can often lead to looking for evidence to support the diagnosis instead of properly addressing all the aspects of a patient. For example, doctors noticed that one of the test patients was taking notes about his stay in the hospital, and assumed it was some pathological writing behavior, further compounding their belief that he was in fact suffering from schizophrenia. These ideas are reflected in Bacamarte’s selection of patients. A local rich man strikes the physician as odd because the rich man often stands outside admiring his stone mansion, and after reading an article about an illness that causes people to have a catatonic state (the early scientific journal he reads phrases it as adopting the posture of a stone), decides this behavior may be indicative of a disorder.
Poor Mateus noticed only that he was an object of the curiosity or admiration of the most important figure in Itaguai. He intensified the nobility of his expression, the stateliness of his pose…Alas! He was merely helping to condemn himself. The next day he was admitted to the Green House.
One by one, then in large groups, Bacamarte finds a reason (or, perhaps, a motive, as many of the townsfolk suggest) to place them in his asylum.

An issue accrues for Bacamarte as to where to draw the lines between a normal aberration or clinical disorder.
First, that he had checked the statistics and had found that four-fifths of the population of Itaguai was in the Green House; seconds, that this disproportionately large number of patients had led him to reexamine his fundamental theory of mental illness, a theory that classified as sick all people who were mentaly unbalanced; third, that as a consequence of this reexamination in the light of the statistics he had concluded not only that his theory was unsound but also that the exactly contrary doctrine was true—that is, that normality lay in a lack of equilibrium and that the abnormal, the really sick, were the well balanced.
Not only does this passage reflect the intricate sentence structure that the author is able to seemingly effortlessly construct with such excellent flow and balance, but asks the question of ‘what is really normal?’ Perhaps normality is an unreachable ideal and we must take pride in our differences, our quirks, and our unique realms of perspectives on the world. However, there are those who are such outliers that attention truly is warranted. In the early days of psychology, discovering which people were the real outliers must have been an interesting process.

What is truly exciting in The Alientist is de Assis accounts of revolution. The townspeople grow angry with all their fellow friends being thrown into the Green House and declare it the ‘Bastille of human reason,’ and organize to overthrow the local government that supports it. With each rebellion and reordering of political power, those in control eventually side with the very rhetoric they used to inspire the rebellion. After overthrowing the first local government for supporting the Green House, the new totalitarian regime approaches Bacamarte to use his selection to dispose of political opponents, and then is overthrown for this same reason by another opponent who then tries to align himself with the physician. Machado de Assis makes a mockery of these political leaders, and Bacamarte views those who struggle for political power as being excellent subjects to study for possibilities of megalomania and arrogance. Society as a whole becomes a bottomless well for de Assis’ satire— in light of modern critiques of drug companies getting rich off the disorders of the public, it is amusing that the physicians closest friend and first supporter is the local pharmacist.

Wildly comic and engaging, this quick little novella has a wealth of ideas to ponder. Despite being over a century old, and despite the leaps and bounds that have occurred in all the scientific fields, this story feels just as poignant in the modern day. If a reader was unaware of the publication date, it would be easy to assume this is an allegory of modern issues set in the past (a past that is painted in broad enough strokes to hardly betray the time it is set in). The Melville House Hybrid Book publication is also very beneficial to any literary enthusiast, offering links to read up about the author as well as read other bits of writing by him. This is a fantastic little satire from a novelist who was the precursor to many of the great Latin American authors, and one that makes a reader question just what makes anything ‘normal’.

He possessed wisdom, patience, tolerance, truthfulness, loyalty, and moral fortitude; all the qualities tjat go to make an utter madman.

Profile Image for Mell Ferraz.
8 reviews798 followers
January 11, 2022
O que começa sendo uma história que promete proporcionar discussões (internas? compartilhadas?) sobre saúde mental – embora com mais de um século desde que publicada – acaba se tornando um livro sobre como tratamos as pessoas e como as julgamos. Penso que é uma obra bastante importante para os leitores do século 21. Há a questão da memória (histórica) curta coletiva que, minha nossa, mais atual impossível, sabe?
Profile Image for Lizzy.
305 reviews166 followers
December 3, 2016
Machado de Assis for me is one of the best Brazilian story-tellers. The novella The Alienist deals with the issue of sanity. Who is crazy and who is not? That is the central question in this story. Is Dr. Bacamarte himself sane?
Till now, madness has been thought a small island in an ocean of sanity. I am beginning to suspect that it is not an island at all but a continent.
Read and enjoy. Recommended.
Profile Image for Sawsan.
1,000 reviews
January 2, 2022
القراءة الثانية لرواية ممتعة ومجنونة للكاتب البرازيلي ماشادو دي أسيس
قوة السلطة الطبية والدينية والسياسية على التحكم في حياة البشر في العالم
قد يتغير الواقع .. ويوما ما يصبح الاتزان العقلي مرادفا للجنون
Profile Image for Nickolas the Kid.
313 reviews70 followers
August 18, 2016
Διασκεδαστικό βιβλίο λοιπόν ο Φρενίατρος!!!

Ο ψυχίατρος Μπακαμάτρε γυρίζει στην γενέτηρά του για να ιδρύσει ένα ψυχιατρείο, το Πράσινο Σπίτι, και να αφοσιωθεί στην μελέτη της ανθρώπινης ψυχολογίας καθώς και των διαφόρων ψυχικών νόσων που εδώ και πολλά χρόνια βασανίζουν το ανθρώπινο είδος...

Αρκετή δόση χιούμορ, αλληγορία και σατιρική διάθεση είναι τα βασικά συστατικά που χρησιμοποιεί ο Ματσάντου σε αυτό το μικρό διήγημα.
Τα όρια της τρέλας και της λογικής πάντα ήταν δυσδιάκριτα και αποτελούσαν αντικείμενο συζήτησης και μελέτης της επιστημονικής κοινότητας. Ο συγγραφέας επιχειρεί λοιπόν να δώσει την δική του εξήγηση και να μας αφήσει εν τέλει να αναρωτηθούμε ακόμα και για τον εαυτό μας για τον αν "τα έχουμε 400", το οποίο κι αυτό δεν είναι σίγουρο ότι είναι καλό και υγιές!!!

Παράλληλα με με την ιστορία του φρενιάτρου παρακολουθούμε και την ζωή στην μικρή πόλη της Βραζιλίας. Διάφοροι χαρακτήρες εμφανίζονται και παίρνουν μέρος στο κοινωνικό γίγνεσθαι της πόλης. Μικροπολιτικά παιχνίδια, ίντριγκες, συμφέροντα, πολιτικοί και πολιτικάντηδες και πάντα με φόντο το Πράσινο Σπίτι που από μόνο του θέτει τα δικά του όρια σε αυτή την μικρή κοινωνία...

4,5/5* από μένα...
Profile Image for Oziel Bispo.
523 reviews72 followers
July 25, 2021
A pacata cidade de Itaguaí, se vê de repente atormentada pelo recém-formado e aclamado Dr. Simão Bacamarte, que começa a recolher alguns loucos e depois quase que toda a cidade(75%)em um hospício chamado casa verde, construído por ele, alegando que estavam sofrendo de demência, tudo isso usando critérios e teorias próprias.

Seu objetivo é através de suas observações, estudos, encontrar a cura para a loucura, não respeitando regras, não dando satisfação a ninguém, só à ciência, um verdadeiro tirano.

Usando sátiras e sarcasmo o mestre Machado de Assis, conduz maravilhosamente esse conto em um Brasil colonial, tratando assuntos polêmicos e na pessoa do Dr. Simão Bacamarte, nos mostrando que a normalidade é um padrão muito difícil de se conseguir.
June 4, 2020
Η βραζιλιάνικη λογοτεχνία εκφράζει εδώ την παραφροσύνη τ��ς λογικής στο έπακρο.
Το έργο εκδόθηκε το 1881, όταν η ψυχιατρική είχε καθιερωθεί ως θεσμός στο πλαίσιο της ιατρικής επιστήμης.
Ο «Φρενίατρος» ως λογοτεχνικό έργο καλεί απροκάλυπτα με μεγάλες δόσεις σαρκασμού,
ειρωνείας και πολύπλευρης μελέτης στην κοινωνία
της τότε εποχής, την επιστήμη της ψιχιατρικής καθολικά, να αποσαφηνίσει τον τρόπο διάγνωσης
και τα κριτήρια που χρησιμοποιούνται ώστε να αποσαφηνιστεί απο ποιο σημείο και μετά η «καθημερινή ρουτίνα της τρέλας» ή τα χαρακρηριστικά κάποιας ιδιάζουσας προσωπικότητας, ενίοτε διανοητικά προικισμένης με πλήρη επάρκεια πνευματικής οξύτητας, μπορούν να αποτελέσουν ψυχική νόσο προς θεραπεία.
Ο δικός μας «Φρενίατρος» έχοντας ξεπεράσει τα όρια της διαταραχής ή και όχι, διατείνεται πως η δική του επιστήμη έχει το χάρισμα να θεραπεύει όλους τους καημούς. Το δικό του μονοπάτι κατόπιν σπουδών και πρακτικής ιατρικής οδηγούσε στην ανακούφιση της άρρωστης ψυχής και στην μελέτη της εγκεφαλικής παθολογίας.
Το έργο του συγγραφέα δεν αποτελεί χρονικογράφημα
ή καταγραφή των πρακτικών της ψυχιατρικής
του 19ου αιώνα, καθώς ανάγει τη μελέτη του δίπλα σε αντιλήψεις και καταστάσεις που παρουσιάζονται ή αναφέρονται στην ανθρώπινη μακροχρόνια πορεία , κυρίως, των κοινωνικών ποικίλων αντιλήψεων σχετικά με την παραφροσύνη και τους ανθρώπινους χαρακτήρες που συνάδουν με την έννοια της απροσδιόριστης τρέλας και ενώνονται μαζί με την φιλοσοφική, επιστημονική και λαογραφική παράδοση.
Απο τους αρχαίους Έλληνες γεννήτορες πολιτισμικών συγγραφικών έργων ως την συναισθηματική ετυμολογία της τρέλας με μπόλικη ρομαντική και ερωτική θεώρηση που της αποδόθηκε τον 19ο αιώνα.

Στα χρονικά της πόλης του Ιταγκουαΐ αναφέρεται πως σε αλλοτινούς, παλαιϊκούς καιρούς, έζησε ο Δρ. Συμεών Μπακαμάρτε. Ήταν γόνος αριστοκρατικής οικογένειας και σπουδαίος γιατρός σε ολόκληρη την τότε επικράτεια του Ισπανικού Βασιλείου.
Ο Δρ. Μακαμπάρτε ο επονομαζόμενος «Φρενίατρος»
αμφισβητεί τις αξίες και τα συστήματα του νέου πλαισίου ψυχιατρικής ή ψυχολογίας της εποχής, στη Βραζιλία τη δεκαετία του 1890.
Αποφασίζει να ιδρύσει ένα άσυλο όπου οι τρόφιμοι θα έπασχαν απο κάποια μορφή βιοχημικών αλλοιώσεων ή ψυχωσικών εμμονών, ή συνδρόμων που ανακάλυπτε ο ίδιος ο Φρενίατρος με σκοπό την θεραπεία ολόκληρης της κοινωνικής μάστιγας που αδιαφορεί ή απομονώνει τα άτομα με ειδικές τάσεις λογικής.

Το ονομάζει «Πράσινο σπίτι»
- τα πράσινα σπίτια ,μάλλον στοιχειώνουν την ιστορία της λατινικής Αμερικής ανεξαρτήτως χρήσης- και καταφέρνει, οι διακομιδές ασθενών μέσα σε αυτό, να αποτελούνται σχεδόν απο την πλειονότητα των κατοίκων της πόλης.

Δεν πρόκειται για ιατρική ή ρεαλιστική ιστορία,
απλώς μια κριτική για την ανυπαρξία της ψυχιατρικής και δείχνει πόσο «επικίνδυνο» μπορεί να γίνει ένα φαινομενικά απλό απονενοημένο λειτούργημα.

Το πράσινο σπίτι εδώ, είναι στριμωγμένο απο κοινωνικές συμπεριφορές αδιαφορίας και οικογενειακές συγκρούσεις με θετική έκβαση, απο τη στιγμή και μόνο τότε, που οι πολλοί αναγκάζουν το πιο αδύναμο μέλος της ομάδας να παρουσιάσει άρρωστη και διαταραγμένη συμπεριφορά.
Πρόκειται επόμενως για τα πολυσυζητημένα όρια ανάμεσα στη λογική και την τρέλα, και επειδή είναι
όρια είναι και ιδιαιτέρως ευάλωτα σε βαθμό υποκειμενικού κακουργήματος.

Έν κατακλείδι, λαμβάνοντας χώρα σε μια φανταστική μικρή πόλη στη Βραζιλία, αυτή είναι μια τρομολαγνική ματιά στη νέα επιστήμη της ψυχιατρικής,
της οποίας
οι ασθενείς- ασκούμενοι, ονομάζονται εξωγήινοι και αναζητάμε την απάντηση στην ερώτηση, τι ακριβώς σημαίνει να είσαι τρελός.
Ποιος μπορεί να ισχυριστεί ότι κάποιος είναι παρανοϊκός έναντι κάποιου άλλου; Τι ακριβώς είναι φυσιολογικό; Είμαστε όλοι τρελοί; Είναι η ομαλότητα ένα σημάδι τρέλας; Πολλές τέτοιες κοσμοθεωρίες μέσω έμμεσων ερωτήσεων συνειδιασιακής εσωτερικής διεργασίας εξετάζονται σε αυτήν την υπέροχα θλιβερή φάρσα.

Και πριν τρελαθώ ή αφού έχω ξεπεράσει τα όρια, παραδέχομαι πως αγαπώ και θαυμάζω την αγγελική, ιερή και θεόσταλτη απο δαιμονικά σπέρματα, σοφία, όλων των τρελών του κόσμου τούτου.

Καλή ανάγνωση.
Πολλούς ασπασμούς.

Profile Image for Nancy Oakes.
1,938 reviews749 followers
March 22, 2018
read twice.

The surface story here is great, but it's what's underneath that really speaks volumes.

The first few pages of this novella did not at all prepare me for what was going to come next, and continuing on, I reached the point where it felt like I was seriously entering the theater of the absurd. The story on the surface is this: one doctor in a small town in Brazil undertakes the study of mental illness, sets himself up as the expert, and proceeds to have an asylum built in the town. He and he alone decides who is going to be committed, consequences follow.

But in this book there's much more than merely plot to consider as is usually the case in satire; aside from the focus on mental illness and how it is determined (a commentary, I think, on the folly of relying solely on science-based reason), ideas, society and politics of the time are put squarely under the microscope here as well. I don't want to say any more than that because it certainly is a story not only worth reading, but also worth spending time pondering to pick up what's actually going on here. I loved this little book.

Profile Image for Katie Lumsden.
Author 2 books2,950 followers
August 8, 2020
I rather enjoyed this. Bizarre, fun, clever and always interesting. Definitely worth a read
Profile Image for Sophie.
664 reviews
October 18, 2016
Ένα ατέλειωτο παιχνίδι νεύρων ανάμεσα στη λογική και στην παραφροσύνη, στο υγιές και σε εκείνο που χρήζει θεραπείας. Υπόρρητο και ταυτόχρονα εξαιρετικά απτό το χιούμορ του κειμένου, με τον αφηγητή να σχολιάζει σε καίρια σημεία της πλοκής, τα επεισόδια που διαδραματίζονται στο Ιταγκουαΐ είναι ευκρινή και θυμίζουν θεατρικό έργο, χάρη στις ανατροπές και στην ταχύτητα της εξέλιξης, ενώ οι χαρακτήρες παρουσιάζονται με μοναδικό τρόπο· ο φακός του συγγραφέα εστιάζει και περιγράφει τα σημαίνοντα πρόσωπα, τους κορυφαίους του λαού, που μαζί με τον πρωταγωνιστή Μπακαμάτρε λαμβάνουν την απαραίτητη δόση διακωμώδησης. Πρόκειται για μια νουβέλα που ανοίγει συζητήσεις πάνω στο τι θεωρείται "αφύσικο", σχετικά με το πώς είναι δυνατόν να διαπιστωθεί η ύπαρξη, μιας λανθάνουσας έστω, παραφροσύνης του εκάστοτε ψυχισμού.

Αξιοσημείωτο το επίμετρο του Δημήτρη Πλουμπίδη, στο οποίο διερευνώνται οι απαρχές, οι πρακτικές της ψυχιατρικής επιστήμης, αλλά και πώς αυτές αποτυπώθηκαν στο έργο του J. M. Machado de Assis.
Profile Image for Raul.
295 reviews210 followers
February 23, 2022
I'd first like to thank Márcio for recommending this writer to me. I knew close to nothing about Machado de Assis priori to his recommendation.

Simão Bacamarte, a respected and great doctor, leaves Portugal and journeys back to his town of Itagua in Brazil to undertake scientific study. He takes psychopathology as his area of study, and with the help of the town officials opens the green house which he uses to constrain and heal his patients. This story is a fascinating parable exploring madness (as the doctor tries to define it, measure it, compare it, heal it), and power as the green house soon becomes the center of the town's focus with suspicions of political intrigue, and later becomes the reason for upheavals. A short book that leaves the mind churning when finished.
Profile Image for blondie.
240 reviews
June 17, 2017
Ο υψιπετης νους του Συμεών Μπακαμαρτε είχε απλώσει τα φτερά του πολύ πάνω από τον ήλιο αφήνοντας στη σκιά του τα υπόλοιπα πνεύματα της γης.
Η εξέλιξη της ψυχιατρικής από την οπτική του Μασαντου ντε Ασσις,με χιουμοριστικό τρόπο, τραγελαφικές καταστάσεις, σε μια τοπική κοινωνία όπου άντεδρασε, επαναστάτησε και εντέλει παραδόθηκε στον Έναν.

Υ.Γ. Ευχαριστώ Νικόλα για την πρόταση, το απόλαυσα!!!
Profile Image for Elina.
494 reviews
April 9, 2020
Υπάρχουν αντικειμενικά όρια σύμφωνα με τα οποία αποφασίζεται από ψυχιάτρους ο εγκλεισμός ψυχικά ασθενών;;; Εξαιρετικό!!! Ένα μικρό διαμαντάκι!
Profile Image for Susana.
489 reviews150 followers
March 9, 2021
Faltou-me aqui o encanto da escrita que encontrei nas outras obras do autor que li antes desta (Dom Casmurro, Brás Cubas, Quincas Borba, A Mão e a Luva).

Além disso, achei a história angustiante e algo absurda (embora ainda tenha lido muito pouco Kafka, penso que o adjetivo kafkiano se adequa a esta narrativa), o que não me permitiu apreciar o humor de algumas situações, embora o tenha reconhecido. A crítica social e política, bastante evidente, também não é das coisas que mais me atrai num livro.

Espero voltar a encantar-me com outras obras de Machado de Assis...
Profile Image for محمد.
Author 4 books1,044 followers
October 26, 2011
في نفس التوقيت، عندما كان الكتاب العظام يهدرون لترات من الأحبار على أطنان من الورق، ينصحون العامة نصائحاً بالغة الأهمية، تدل على نبوغ مفرط، مثل: الجريمة لا تفيد، الاتحاد قوة، الحرب وحشة....
كان ده آسيس يكتب روايات بالغة النحافة، متحدثاً بلطافة غير معتادة عن غباء الإنسان، ومدى حيرته في أمر الدنيا، وكيف أن كل شيء سيؤول في النهاية إلى تراب، وأن المجهود البشري المبذول عبر التاريخ الطويل، ليس سوى دورة نيتروجين أو أكسجين، لا أكثر.
في موضع من الرواية، وجدت وصفاً قصيراً لثورة، فهمت من خلال الوصف مسببات الثورات بشكل عام، فهمت أيضاً كيف يتنازل الثائر -إذا حكم- عن كل شيء، وكيف أنه قد ينسى أسباب ثورته، بل إنه قد يحافظ على تلك الأسباب قائمة، فقط لكي يحافظ على النظام، ويتجنب الفوضى.
الرواية من إصدار دار إلياس، وجدتها مصادفة في مكتبة ديوان، وأظن أن نسختي هي الأخيرة أو تكاد. أتمنى أن يعاد نشر الرواية مرة أخرى.
Profile Image for Carla.
285 reviews75 followers
March 12, 2019
Apesar de não ser um livro entusiasmante, toca em algumas questões pertinentes e a prosa de Machado de Assis é irrepreensível.
Profile Image for Lucas Mota.
Author 7 books108 followers
November 20, 2016
Eu tenho dificuldades com a linguagem do autor. Não é pomposa visto que ele foi "pop" em sua época, é apenas distante de mim. Muitas das palavras que ele usa, eu não costumo ouvir ou utilizar, o que torna a leitura bastante cansativa pra mim.
Por outro lado, a história é poderosa. É a primeira vez que chego ao final de uma obra de Machado de Assis. Com toda a dificuldade que eu tenho em consumir textos com linguagens mais antigas, eu digo que esta novela (é uma novela, não um conto) foi uma das coisas mais bacanas que li este ano. Não dou 5 estrelas porque minha experiência de leitura foi prejudicada por minha própria ignorância sobre o vocabulário usado há mais de cem anos atrás.
Profile Image for Maria Ferreira.
217 reviews42 followers
February 7, 2020
Conto de Machado de Assis, escrito de forma elegante, difundindo uma mensagem crítica da sociedade.

Neste breve conto, Assis conta a história de um médico psiquiatra, formado em Coimbra em meados do século passado que resolve abrir um hospício na sua terra natal, Itaguí.

Simão Bacamarte propõe-se a estudar o cérebro dos humanos, com o apoio do governo local abre um hospício. À medida que vai conversando com os seus concidadãos vai diagnosticando as suas doenças e propõe internamento.

Passado algum tempo, quatro quintos da população local estava internada devido a sua patologia: maníacos, agressivos, deprimidos, revoltados, inócuos, etc… todos sofriam de algum tipo de transtorno.

A população revolta-se com a situação, pois como era possível numa aldeia tão pacata haver tanto louco que justificasse internamento permanente. O barbeiro em nome do governo decide falar com o médico.

Após análise dos estudos feitos aos pacientes, o senhor doutor Simão Bacamarte decide dar alta a todos e, emite o diagnóstico:

Todas as pessoas sofrem de algum tipo de transtorno, o que é normal no ser humano, isto é, todos nós somos loucos, cada um ao seu estilo, e cada um com as suas manias.
Profile Image for Anabela Mestre.
94 reviews31 followers
September 22, 2018
É a primeira vez que leio uma obra deste grande escritor brasileiro, Machado de Assis. E não me decepcionei. É uma pequena grande obra. Em que um médico Simão Bacamarta, tenta numa pequena cidade do Brasil, descobrir a origem e o tratamento da loucura. Para isso procede à construção da Casa Verde, onde a afluência de dementes, é cada vez maior. De tanto internamento, o médico, leva à rebelião do povo, que sente ameaçada a sua própria liberdade. Por fim é conseguido um consenso que satisfaz todos.
É claro, que é isso que se lê nas linhas, porque nas entrelinhas sobrepõe-se muito mais. Ou seja não é uma obra em que o verdadeiro objecto da leitura esteja à vista, mas sim uma escrita de qualidade que leva o leitor a pensar e a descobrir por si a sua própria interpretação. Quem gosta de livros para pensar e sem uma escrita muito difícil, aconselho esta leitura.
Profile Image for Thomé.
190 reviews3 followers
April 23, 2021
Fez ontem precisamente quinhentos e vinte e um anos (22 de Abril de 1500), que os portugueses descobriram o Brasil, e nós, portugueses, devíamos reverenciar Pedro Álvares Cabral, por ter levado consigo o nosso bem mais precioso: a língua. Não fosse isso, e não poderíamos apreciar no original, um dos príncipes da ironia (expoente máximo da inteligência) que é Machado de Assis, só ombreando, no século dezanove, com Camilo Castelo Branco e o seu “Eusébio Macário | A Corja”.
Esta óptima edição, tem a particularidade, salvo raríssimas excepções, de manter o texto no seu original, não embarcando de todo, em imbecilidades ortográficas.
E por fim fica a pergunta, do vereador Sebastião Freitas: “quem nos afirma que o alienado não é o alienista?”
Profile Image for Jose Santos.
Author 2 books141 followers
September 17, 2023
Um jovem médico, que estudou na Universidade de Coimbra regressa a Itaguí, a sua vila natal, e propõe-se abrir um manicómio para estudar as loucuras dos seus pacientes. Mas a verdadeira loucura inicia-se quando o doutor começa a internar todos os que se atravessem no seu caminho... será que o alienado é o alienista?
Na sua escrita cheia de critica e boas descrições da sociedade, Machado de Assis é um autor que nunca desilude! Uma boa leitura!
Profile Image for Laurinha Lero.
72 reviews372 followers
December 21, 2020
De fato, o alienista oficiara à câmara expondo: – 1º, que verificara das estatísticas da vila e da Casa Verde que quatro quintos da população estavam aposentados naquele estabelecimento; 2º, que esta deslocação de população levara-o a examinar os fundamentos da sua teoria das moléstias cerebrais, teoria que excluía do domínio da razão todos os casos em que o equilíbrio das faculdades não fosse perfeito e absoluto; 3º, que desse exame e do fato estatístico resultara para ele a convicção de que a verdadeira doutrina não era aquela, mas a oposta, e portanto que se devia admitir como normal e exemplar o desequilíbrio das faculdades, e como hipóteses patológicas todos os casos em que aquele equilíbrio fosse ininterrupto (...)

Lacan antes de Lacan. A edição da Antofágica abre com o prefácio de uma youtuber falando que tem gente que acha os clássicos "chatos ou antiquados, mas estas são as obras que mais me encantam, justamente por serem tão atemporais a ponto de se tornarem imprescindíveis à arte", que é o tipo de prosa que você não espera encontrar fora do site trabalhosfeitos.com.

Esse é provavelmente meu livro preferido dele, nem tanto pela atemporalidade e imprescindibilidade da obra quanto por servir de documento histórico de um grau de liberdade criativa que morreu no século 19. Qualquer descrição de cena termina com um "imagina-se o resto", como se o narrador tivesse com pressa pra bater o ponto, e o personagem padre só tá na história pra falar os trocadilho em latim que o Machado pensava subindo ladeira no Catete. O que quer que eu tenha rido lendo esse livro certamente não se compara ao quanto ele riu escrevendo. Ô homem pra saber se curtir.

Resenha de nov. 2015:

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